What are the most common symptoms of multiple sclerosis?

What are the most common symptoms of multiple sclerosis?

In this article we will know about the answer of questions “What are the most common symptoms of multiple sclerosis”? But before that we should go through for a short details about MS.

What is multiple sclerosis?

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex chronic neurodegenerative disease that affects the central nervous system (CNS) and it is an autoimmune disease. This is mediated by auto reactive lymphocytes crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the CNS and causing local inflammation leading to demyelination, sugar scarring and axonal loss. (1)

They mainly affect people between the ages of 20 and 40. Women with the highest incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) are twice as likely to develop the condition as men. (2)

According to Hopkins medicine multiple sclerosis (MS) means, “Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease that affects the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord). MS occurs when the immune system attacks nerve fibers and myelin sheaths (a fatty substance that surrounds/insulates healthy nerve fibers) in the brain and spinal cord. This attack causes inflammation, which destroys nerve cells and the myelin process, and changes the electrical information in the brain.”

In recent years, scientists have discovered many new treatments that can usually help prevent recurrence and slow the effects of the disease.

The most common symptoms of multiple sclerosis is Pain, fatigue, vision problem, muscle spasm, numbness, tingling sensation, mobility problems, stiffness, spasm etc. Read this full article to know details about the common symptoms of multiple sclerosis.

What is the causes of multiple sclerosis?

It is unclear why the immune system attacks myelin. This can in part be caused by genes passed on from parents and external factors that can cause the disease. Possible causes of multiple sclerosis include:

Viral infections: Infections, especially the Epstein-Barr virus, are thought to affect the immune system and cause multiple sclerosis in some people.

Being female: Women are 2-3 times more likely to develop MS than men. The reason is not clear.

Lack of sunlight and vitamin D: Multiple sclerosis is more common in countries far from the equator. It is unclear if vitamin D supplementation will help prevent genetic MS, but it could mean that lack of sunlight and low vitamin D levels may predispose to disease.

MS Direct is not inherited, but it is more likely to be associated with a disease. Siblings or children of someone with multiple sclerosis also have a 2-3% chance of getting it.

Smoking: smokers are about twice as likely to develop multiple sclerosis as non-smokers.

Obesity in adults: Obese people are at increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis.

More research is needed to better understand why multiple sclerosis develops and what can be done to prevent it.

What is the pathophysiology of multiple sclerosis?

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease. In other words, the immune system perceives body parts as foreign and attacks them. MS affects the myelin sheaths of the brain and spinal cord, the lining that surrounds the nerves.

This protects them and helps transmit electrical signals from the brain to the rest of the body. This attack causes the myelin to swell into small patches (plaques or lesions). This can be confirmed by MRI. A message to worry about, this can slow down, confuse, send incorrectly, or stop transmission altogether.

This disease causes the symptoms and symptoms of multiple sclerosis. When the inflammation subsides, it may go away. Behind myelinated scar tissue (sclerosis). These attacks, especially if repeated, can ultimately lead to permanent damage to the nerves underneath.

What are the most common symptoms of multiple sclerosis?

The symptoms of multiple sclerosis are unstable and unpredictable. No two people have the same symptoms, and all of them may or may not change their symptoms over time. Some people may only experience one or two possible symptoms, while others may find out more.

Some people develop symptoms gradually over time, while others come and go. The stage when symptoms get worse is called a relapse. The period when symptoms improve or go away is called remission.

The most common symptoms of multiple sclerosis are-

  • Numbness and tingling sensation
  • Vision problem
  • Fatigue
  • Pain and itching
  • Weakness
  • Muscle spasm & stiffness
  • Bowel and bladder incontinence
  • Depression and anxiety
  • Emotional changes
  • Gait problem
  • MS Hug (Dysesthesia)
  • Problem with thinking, learning and planning

Numbness and tingling sensation

Paralysis is a loss, decrease, or change in sensations. When you touch something with your hand, you may become less sensitive or feel that one leg is different from the other. You may feel “sleepy” with a tingling sensation. Numbness of the face, body, or limbs (arms and legs) is one of the most common symptoms of multiple sclerosis.

This may be the first symptom of multiple sclerosis you experience. Mild or severe numbness affects the ability to use the affected body part. For example, if your legs are severely numb and cannot feel the ground, you may have trouble walking. Numb hands can get in the way of writing, changing clothes, and keeping things safe.

Vision problem

Vision problems are one of the most common symptoms of MS, and it is usually one of the first symptoms that people with MS notice. Symptoms may include blurred vision, double vision, optic neuritis, involuntary rapid eye movements, and sometimes complete loss of vision.

Vision problems may be due to damage to the optic nerve or a lack of coordination and eye muscles. The optic nerve interfaces the eye to the cerebrum. Inflammation or demyelination of the optic nerve can cause optic neuritis, which is shown as a brief misfortune or change of vision and conceivably torment behind the affected eye.

Vision usually recovers partially or completely within a few weeks. Although complete blindness in MS patients is very rare, repeated episodes of optic neuritis during the course of the disease are not uncommon, usually only in one eye at a time.

Optic nerve damage can cause blurred vision, which may or may not completely resolve over time. Color vision requires countless nerve fibers in the eye to be precisely transmitted, and it is especially susceptible to changes in demyelination.

A study published in Neurology in 2004 reported that 17% of African Americans have optic spinal MS, compared with 8% of whites. Fortunately, the prognosis is good for recovery from many of the vision problems associated with MS.

Fatigue

Malaise or fatigue is one of the most common and disturbing symptoms of multiple sclerosis. It is often referred to as overwhelming fatigue, which means that even the simplest activities can be difficult to complete. Feeling unwell can seriously affect your daily activities, and it tends to be worse at the end of the day, in hot weather, after exercise, or during illness.

Pain and itching

Itching is just one of the many symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), but its underlying cause is different from other cases of itching related to skin inflammation. Signs of the diseases prescription drugs used to treat MS can also cause or worsen itching.

Weakness

Weakness is a common symptom of multiple sclerosis. You may feel that you do not have enough strength or energy to move part or all of your limbs or your entire body. Weakness and fatigue are closely related, and one of them tends to make the other symptoms worse. Weakness in one or both legs can cause walking and balance problems. Multiple sclerosis can also increase the risk of falls. Trunk weakness can worsen posture or bowel symptoms.

Muscle spasm & stiffness

Spasticity occurs due to an imbalance of electrical signals from the brain and spinal cord, usually because multiple sclerosis has damaged the nerves there. This irregularity can cause your muscles to contract on their own and make them tense.

The condition gets worse when the weather is too hot or too cold, infected or wearing tight clothing. This is one of the most common symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Spasms can also cause pain or tightness in and around the joints, and may cause low back pain. Although cramps can occur in any limb, they are more common in the legs.

Bowel and bladder incontinence

Bladder dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) is common and can affect as many as 78% to 90% of patients during the course of MS. The prevalence of MS bowel dysfunction is estimated to be approximately 68% of patients. Bladder and bladder indications are generally common in MS and can be treated. The objectives of bladder and bowel management include expanding freedom and forestalling urinary incontinence and complexities.

Depression and anxiety

When people talk about the common symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS), they usually mention vision problems, tingling, numbness, and fatigue. Depression rarely appears on this list, but it should. Researchers now proved that depression is one of the most common symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS).

Emotional changes

When people learn to cope with multiple sclerosis, there are many common emotional responses. Uncertainty, tension and fear are most often manifested during illness, as well as when making a diagnosis.

People with multiple sclerosis may cry before they develop multiple sclerosis, and it takes time for them to adjust to it. Other emotional changes that can occur with multiple sclerosis include clinical depression, bipolar disorder, and mood swings.

These are all more common in people with multiple sclerosis than in the general population. Depression and bipolar disorder require proficient and compelling treatment. Emotional instability is more common and may be more severe in people with multiple sclerosis.

This can include frequent mood swings from happiness to sadness and anger. This is most likely due to the added stress and neurological changes that multiple sclerosis brings. Uncontrolled laughing and crying disorders affect a small number of people with MS and are thought to be caused by MS-induced brain changes.

Gait problem

Gait problem is one of the most disabling symptoms for people with multiple sclerosis (MS). In the early stages of multiple sclerosis, patients often suffer from several symptoms, especially gait disturbances caused by weakness, balance problems, coordination problems, seizures, or extreme sensory disturbances.

In studies of patients with multiple sclerosis, nearly half reported gait disturbance, in particular, decreased walking speed and distance, which was recognized as the most lethal symptom of multiple sclerosis in 70% of cases. Walking is an important part of daily life.

Its decline can affect the quality of life and cause economic and social problems. All of these considerations underscore the interest in studying and treating gait disorders as effectively as possible.

MS Hug (Dysesthesia)

MS hugs are a multiple sclerosis symptom that feels like a tight band around the chest or trunk. It is also called banding or girdling. Like many symptoms of MS, the feeling of MS hugs varies from person to person. Some people describe it as pressure, pain, tingling, pain, or burning. They say the discomfort it produces ranges from “annoying to very painful”. The hug usually lasts a few seconds, but it can also be continued; some people with MS feel it on their hands or feet, and others in their minds.

Problem with thinking, learning and planning

Thinking and memory problems, also called cognitive problems, are common in multiple sclerosis. Problems include memory, attention, planning, decision making, comprehension, or concentration.

Thinking and memory problems occur in about half of people with multiple sclerosis. Cognition is the medical term for thinking, and problems with thinking and memory are called cognitive problems. Strategies that combine cognitive exercise and brain training can help.

You may have problems with attention, memory, decision making, planning, understanding, or concentration. Many people with multiple sclerosis have the feeling that “brain fog” and “congressional fog” are poorly organized and unreliable in their thought processes.

Cognitive problems are often directly related to multiple sclerosis. Although this could be a side effect of the drug. Other symptoms of multiple sclerosis, such as fatigue, anxiety, and depression, can exacerbate cognitive impairment. Not all cognitive disorders are created equal.

For most people, cognitive symptoms are relatively mild and can change on a daily basis. They may not initially recognize it as an aspect of multiple sclerosis and may be caused by other causes such as stress, overwork, malaise, or simply aging.

What age does MS usually start?

Multiple sclerosis generally affects individuals between the ages of 20 and 50 years, and the average age of beginning is roughly 34 years. What’s more, Women are more than twice as liable to foster different sclerosis as men. Multiple sclerosis can also affect children and adolescents (MS in children). An estimated 2-5% of people with multiple sclerosis develop symptoms before the age of 18.

What does MS feel like at first?

Lack of sensitivity or tingling sensation may be the first sign of multiple sclerosis nerve damage. It usually occurs on the face, arms, legs, and one side of the body. They also tend to disappear naturally. Multiple sclerosis is a disease with unpredictable symptoms that can vary in intensity. Some people experience fatigue and numbness, but severe cases of multiple sclerosis can cause paralysis, vision loss, and brain dysfunction.

What are the four stages of MS?

The four stages of multiple sclerosis (MS) are

Clinically isolated syndrome (CIS)

These are symptoms of the first episode due to inflammation and damage to the myelin sheath covering the nerves in the brain and spinal cord. Technically, CIS does not meet the diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis.

This is because only one demyelination site is the only event that causes symptoms. MS can be diagnosed if different episodes have been shown on previous MRI scans.

Relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS)

The first signs of this disease usually appear before the age of 30. People with RRMS have seizures with new or more severe symptoms. Most people with multiple sclerosis (MS) have relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS).

After each attack, the symptoms improve or go away for a long time until they reappear at another time. In some cases, symptoms become persistent and only slightly improve during remission. After a relapse, new rashes often appear on the brain. However, this can happen without any overt symptoms.

The seriousness of symptoms can change contingent upon the degree and area of the nerve damage. The duration of remission ranges from one week to several years, during which there are no signs of disease progression.

Primary progressive MS (PPMS)

Approximately 15% of people are diagnosed with a relatively rare disease called primary progressive multiple sclerosis, which is characterized by a slow and steady progression of the disease without a period of remission.

Some patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis have occasionally stable symptoms and slight functional improvements, and these improvements are often temporary. Over time, the rate of progress will vary.

Secondary progressive MS (SPMS)

After a person has RRMS for many years, the disease will eventually develop into SPMS. When this happens, the symptoms will gradually become more severe, and there is no longer a distinction between onset and relief.

How long can you live with MS?

Within 15 years of onset, people with multiple sclerosis are 50% more likely to walk unaided. Half of the patients required assistance with walking or a wheelchair. The other half of the patients can move around without assistance.

The suicide rate among MS patients is 7.5 times higher than among the general population. It was found that the suicide rate of suicidal patients was not correlated with disability.

Life expectancy in a population of MS patients varies greatly from patient to patient and is very difficult to estimate. Life expectancy of 25 to 35 years is often indicated after a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis.

Some of the most common causes of death in people with multiple sclerosis are secondary complications associated with immobility, chronic urinary tract infections, and difficulty swallowing and breathing.

Some of the complications in this category are chronic pressure ulcers, urogenital sepsis, bacterial aspiration, or pneumonia.

Can you recover from multiple sclerosis?

Medical science told that there is no cure for multiple sclerosis. Treatment usually focuses on speeding up recovery from seizures, slowing the progression of the disease, and relieving symptoms of multiple sclerosis. A few group have mild symptoms that don’t need treatment. In a recent studies shows that, early disease-modifying treatment for multiple sclerosis is associated with better recovery from relapse and prevention of long-term disability. You can buy this book based on real life stories written by George Jelinek & Karen Law.

What bacteria causes multiple sclerosis?

Some evidence told that multiple sclerosis (MS), like other autoimmune diseases, can be caused by a microbial infection. Pathogens involved in the onset or exacerbation of multiple sclerosis include bacteria such as Chlamydia pneumoniae, enterotoxins that act as superantigens for Staphylococcus aureus, herpes viruses (Epstein-Barr virus and human herpesvirus, and human pathogens. Contains the family of genital retroviruses.

What are the early warning signs of MS?

The early warning signs of MS are-

  1. Persistent limb weakness or numbness
  2. Facial paralysis
  3. Painful vision loss in one eye
  4. Severe ongoing dizziness
  • Persistent limb weakness or numbness: We have all experienced numbness and tingling in our hands and feet when we slept in an uncomfortable position or sat in a wrong position for a long time. If this feeling goes away after about an hour, you probably have nothing to worry about. However, if it lasts more than a day or two, don’t ignore it.
  • Facial paralysis: When one side of the face is temporarily paralyzed or tilted, it is called facial palsy or facial paralysis. It needs attention.
  • Painful vision loss in one eye: There may be many causes for vision problems. However, if you have painful vision loss or blurred vision in one eye that lasts more than a few days, get an examination.
  • Severe ongoing dizziness: There are many causes of dizziness, but dizziness caused by MS is usually more serious and lasts for at least two days. If you feel severe dizziness like this then you should meet with a doctor immediately.
Sources
https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30638421/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5241505/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK499849/
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3351877/
https://journals.sagepub.com/home/msj
https://www.iomcworld.org/multiple-sclerosis-open-access.html
https://www.sciencedirect.com/journal/multiple-sclerosis-and-related-disorders
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